Implementing data on targeted therapy from the INFORM registry platform for children with relapsed cancer in Sweden

Wallin S, Øra I, Prochazka G, Sandgren J, Björklund C, Ljungman G, Vogt H, Ek T, Van Tilburg C, Nilsson A

Front. Oncol. Sec. Pediatric Oncology Volume 14 – 2024 | doi: 10.3389/fonc.2024.1340099

Background: Advances in treatment of childhood malignancies have improved overall cure rates to 80%. Nevertheless, cancer is still the most common cause of childhood mortality in Sweden. The prognosis is particularly poor for relapse of high-risk malignancies. In the international INFORM registry, tumor tissue from patients with relapsed, refractory, or progressive pediatric cancer as well as from very-high risk primary tumors is biologically characterized using next-generation sequencing to identify possible therapeutic targets. We analyzed data from Swedish children included in the INFORM registry concerning patient characteristics, survival, sequencing results and whether targeted treatment was administered to the children based on the molecular findings.Sweden during 2016-2021.The most common diagnoses were soft tissue and bone sarcomas followed by high grade gliomas [including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG)]. Complete molecular analysis was successful for 203/212 samples originating from 184 patients. In 88% of the samples, at least one actionable target was identified. Highly prioritized targets, according to a preset scale, were identified in 48 (24%) samples from 40 patients and 24 of these patients received matched targeted treatment but only six children within a clinical trial. No statistically significant benefit in terms of overall survival or progression free survival was observed between children treated with matched targeted treatment compared to all others.This international collaborative study demonstrate feasibility regarding sequencing of pediatric high-risk tumors providing molecular data regarding potential actionable targets to clinicians. For a few individuals the INFORM analysis was of utmost importance and should be regarded as a new standard of care with the potential to guide targeted therapy.